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Development workflow with Nix

·8 mins

Devshells are a very powerful tool, and one of the big selling points of Nix. A devshell allows you to enter an environment where you have all your development dependencies available, without altering the host system. This means that:

  • Each project is completely isolated from each other, no more dependency hell between them.
  • Packages don’t pollute the system dependency graph, and the packages are only “visible” within the shell.

Sharing a devshells is easy, just checkout the nixfiles into the repo and everybody will be one nix-shell away from getting all the requiements to build or use the project.

So in this blog post, I want to give a quick overview of how to get started from the very beginning.

Preparations #

Install nix #

To start from the very beginning, you need to install nix. You can install it on any Linux distribution and macOS too.

The determinate installer provides a nicer user experience, but I am in my responsibility to also mention the official one.

Install direnv #

direnv is an external tool, that loads a development environment when you enter a directory.

$ cargo --version
-> cargo: command not found

$ cd Documents/autonix
$ cargo --version
cargo 1.64.0

It will load the nix shell automatically upon entering the directory, and keep your current prompt instead of dropping you into stock bash.

To install it, you need to install the direnv executable along with the hook extensions:

Init the project #

To instantiate a nix shell, there are two approaches: using a classic shell.nix file, or using a flake. While I would recommend a simple shell.nix, a simple flake boilerplate is also provided.

If you are unsure, use a classic shell.nix file. The main difference for this example is that the flake will automatically pin the nixpkgs version to the flake.lock, which you may not need for a simple demo.

Classic nix #

# shell.nix
  pkgs = import <nixpkgs> {};
  pkgs.mkShell {
    packages = [  ];
    # ...

Flake #

# flake.nix
  inputs = {
    nixpkgs.url = "github:NixOS/nixpkgs/nixos-unstable";

  outputs = {nixpkgs, ...}: let
    system = "x86_64-linux";
    #       ↑ Swap it for your system if needed
    #       "aarch64-linux" / "x86_64-darwin" / "aarch64-darwin"
    pkgs = nixpkgs.legacyPackages.${system};
  in {
    devShells.${system}.default = pkgs.mkShell {

      packages = [  ];
      # ...

If you use git, make sure to git add every nix file!

direnv #

You also need a file telling direnv how to load the nix files. Its contents will depend if you used a classic shell.nix or a flake.

# .envrc

# for a shell.nix:
use nix

# for a flake.nix:
# use flake

Ready, set, go! #

All that is left to do is filling the arguments of mkShell with the programs that you want. All you need to know about it is:

  • Add your packages in the argument of packages. Browse for everything that is available.
  • Be mindful if a package provides a .out output (the default) or a .dev output, which includes headers, libraries, etc.
  • Add your environment variables directly as arguments to mkShell.
  • Each language ecosystem has its gotchas, so take a look at the Languages and frameworks section of the nixpkgs manual.
  • shellHook is run after entering the shell. We try to not [ab]use it, but sometimes we need it to set up some workarounds.

The following are some quick examples of common use cases for different languages.

Rust #

For the first example, we can use nix to install our compiler, but also the language server and formatter.

pkgs.mkShell {
  packages = [


  env = {
    RUST_BACKTRACE = "full";

I have a blog post about using a rustup toolchain.toml with nix, such that you can perfectly pin your rust version with nix, while still pulling custom toolchains or targets: Nix shell with rustup.

Python #

In this example, we leverage the withPackages function of nixpkgs’ python to add some custom packages. This is the easiest way to use python with nix, but it requires that the packages are available in nixpkgs.

pkgs.mkShell {
  packages = [
    (pkgs.python3.withPackages (python-pkgs: [

  # Workaround: make vscode's python extension read the .venv
  shellHook = ''
    venv="$(cd $(dirname $(which python)); cd ..; pwd)"
    ln -Tsf "$venv" .venv

Poetry #

If you need packages that are not available on nixpkgs, instead of packaging it you can resort to using poetry. In this shell we use nix to provide python and poetry, and configure it to automatically enter the venv with direnv.

pkgs.mkShell {
  packages = [

  env = {
    # Workaround in linux: python downloads ELF's that can't find glibc
    # You would see errors like: error while loading shared libraries: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
    LD_LIBRARY_PATH = pkgs.lib.makeLibraryPath [
      # Add any missing library needed
      # You can use the nix-index package to locate them, e.g. nix-locate -w --top-level --at-root /lib/

    # Put the venv on the repo, so direnv can access it
    POETRY_VIRTUALENVS_PATH = "{project-dir}/.venv";

    # Use python from path, so you can use a different version to the one bundled with poetry

And modify your .envrc to use the venv created by poetry:

use nix # or use flake...

watch_file .venv
if [ -d .venv ]; then
  source .venv/bin/activate
Using LD_LIBRARY_PATH may lead to weird errors if the glibc version of the shell doesn’t match the one of the system. For a devshell that uses <nixpkgs> it shouldn’t be an issue, but otherwise I’d recommend using nix-ld.

C/C++ #

For C/C++, things can get more complicated, because of the nature of the language toolchain. To begin with, an empty nix shell already provides a C compiler, make and some other utils:

pkgs.mkShell {

To use a different C compiler, you may be tempted to add it to packages, but that is wrong here. What you need to do, is swap mkShells standard environment as follows:

pkgs.mkShell.override {
  stdenv = pkgs.clang15Stdenv;
} {
  packages = [];

To propery discover libraries, you may need a combination of the following tools. Under the hood, when they are added in packages, code is executed to properly configure the environment, such that it “just works”.

pkgs.mkShell {
  packages = [

    # Choose the build tools that you need

    # Add some libraries
Some packages may come with different outputs. When you search in , you will see at least out, and dev if the packages contains headers. If you add simply to packages = [], nix should figure out that you want, but you can also type it manually.

Hardening #

Nixpkgs add some compiler flags by default as part of the hardening profile. You can read more about it in the manual section. Although for a devshell, you may want to turn off all these default flags, so you get a better debugging experience:

pkgs.mkShell {
     hardeningDisable = ["all"];

Language server #

For your editor to pick up the C/C++ libraries which rely on pkg-config or cmake, I’ve had success with the following stack:

  • Tell cmake or meson to generate a compile_commands.json. For cmake, you need to add set(CMAKE_EXPORT_COMPILE_COMMANDS ON) to your CMakeLists.txt or pass -DCMAKE_EXPORT_COMPILE_COMMANDS=1. Meson should generate it automatically.
  • Install clangd, by adding clang-tools to your devshell.
  • Configure your editor to use clangd. For example, for vscode: uninstall the Microsoft C/C++ extension and install the clangd extension.
  • Make sure clangd finds your compile_commands.json, by either:
    • Creating a symlink of the file from your build directory into your root directory (easiest). E.g. ln -vs ./builddir/compile_commands.json ./compile_commands.json.
    • Configure your editor extension to pass the flag --compile-commands-dir=<directory> to clangd. For vscode, add "clangd.arguments": ["--compile-commands-dir=<directory>"] to your project’s .vscode/settings.json .
  • You may need to restart the editor for the changes to propagate.

NodeJS #

Unlike C/C++, NodeJS is quite straightfoward. While most things will be handled by your editor, you might want to open a quick shell to make certain packages available to yourself. The packages below are generally universal, but certain frameworks (i.e Svelte or NextJS) may require additional packages to be added to the shell.

pkgs.mkShell {
  packages = [
    # standard toolkit
    pkgs.nodejs # nixpkgs provides a "nodejs" package that corresponds to the current LTS version of nodejs, but you can specify a version (i.e node_20) if necessary
    pkgs.pnpm # a faster alternative to npm and yarn, with a less adopted toolchain

    # optionally required by your code editor to lint and format your code
    pkgs.nodePackages.prettier # formatter
    pkgs.nodePackages.eslint # linter

    # example package to serve a static nextjs export

For globally installing packages, remember that the ad-hoc npm install -g <nodePackage> method is not supported on NixOS, so you will need to add packages to your shell or environment packages to make them globally available. An example language server installation would look like this.

pkgs.mkShell {
  packages = [

Keep nixing! #

I hope that you found this quick guide useful, and feel free to open an issue on the GitHub repository if you have any suggestion to add an example for a language.

As you use more complex frameworks, or more specific/niche situations; more things will fail. But feel free to ask on NixOS Discourse if you run into any issue!

Fernando Ayats
Fernando Ayats